Anatomy : Branches and Basic terminology

June 11, 2012 | By | Reply More

Anatomy : Branches and Basic terminology

Anatomy (from the Greek word anatome,”dissection”)

Anatomy is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things

—  Anatomy – study of structure

—  Physiology – study of function

 Structure determines Function

—  Function  determines Structure

—  Charles Darwin – “Origin of the Species” (1858) – Changes in structure affect function: basis of evolution of all organisms

Branches of anatomy

—  Gross anatomy

—  Microscopic anatomy

—  Cytology

—  Histology

—  Developmental anatomy

—  Embryology

—  Comparative anatomy

—  Histology

—  Microscopic examination of the fine structure of organs, tissues and cells

—  Tissues are prepared by fixation (preserved) and then cut into thin sections

—  Artifacts (distortions; not real)

Anatomical Position

—  Body erect

—  Head, eyes, toes directed forward

—  Limbs at sides of body

—  Palms directed forward

Anatomical Planes

—  Median = vertical, front to back in midline

—  Frontal (coronal) = vertical, perpendicular to median

—  Horizontal (transverse) = parallel to floor, perpendicular to median, coronal

—  Sagittal = vertical, parallel to median

Terms of Direction

—  Medial = closer to median plane

—  Lateral = further from median plane

—  Anterior (ventral) = towards front of body

—  Posterior (dorsal) = towards back of body

—  Superior (cephalic) = towards head

—  Inferior (caudal) = towards bottom of feet

—  Superficial = towards surface of body, part

—  Deep = towards center of body, part

—  Proximal = nearer origin or attachment

—  Distal = further from origin or attachment

Category: Anatomy

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