Anatomy of the Bone – Types and Structure of bone tissue

August 16, 2012 | By | Reply More

Anatomy of the Bone – Types and Structure of bone tissue

Skeletal Anatomy

Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue.

Important functions

  • BODY MOVEMENT – muscles “pull” on bones
  • BLOOD CELL FORMATION – hemopoiesis  occurs in red bone marrow
  • STORAGE of inorganic salts – especially calcium phosphate, but also magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonates and others.

Normally 206 bones present in our human skeleton
– 2 Main Divisions:  AXIAL & APPENDICULAR

1.  AXIAL:  head, neck, trunk
SKULL, HYOID BONE (upper neck, under jaw, mandible)
VERTEBRAL COLUMN (spine/backbone)
THORACIC CAGE (rib cage-12 pairs)


2.  APPENDICULAR:  limbs and bones connecting the limbs to the:
PECTORAL GIRDLE (scapula & clavicle),


PELVIC GIRDLE (coxal bones),



Major parts:
EPIPHYSIS – expanded ends of bone.  ARTICULATES (forms a joint) with another bone.
DIAPHYSIS – shaft of the bone
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE – hyaline cartilage covering the ends of bones
PERIOSTEUM – tough membrane-like covering over entire bone, except for articular cartilage.   Connects with tendons and ligaments.  Forms bone tissue.
MEDULLARY CAVITY – hollow chamber within the diaphysis connects to spaces in spongy bone.  Filled with soft specialized tissue called bone marrow.

•    Red Marrow – mainly in spongy bone in adults.  Produces blood cells
•    Yellow Marrow – fat storage.  Replaces much of the red marrow in diaphysis through childhood

ENDOSTEUM – lining of the medullary cavity

Two Types of Bone Tissue

1.  COMPACT (cortical) BONE – wall of the diaphysis, solid, strong
2.  SPONGY (cancellous) BONE – epiphysis.  Covered with a thin layer of compact bone.  Many branching, bony “plates”

Microscopic Structure

  • MATRIX composed of collagen and inorganic salts.
  • OSTEOCYTES (mature bone cells) are enclosed in tiny chambers called LACUNAE and form concentric “ring” (layers) around a passageway called the HAVERSIAN CANAL.
  • The osteocytes are connected by minute passages called CANALICULI (canaliculus) through which tiny “branches” or processes pass.
  • The circular layers of matrix material and osteocytes, along with the haversian canal, forms a unit called a HAVERSIAN SYSTEM.   Compact bone tissue is formed in this way.
  • The haversian canals are interconnected by passages called VOLKMANN’S CANALS.  All of these canals contain blood vessels and nerve fibers.


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Category: Anatomy, Medical

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