Appendicular Muscles | Human Anatomy | PPT

January 19, 2013 | By | Reply More

Appendicular Muscles | Human Anatomy | PPT

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Human Anatomy

Appendicular Muscles

Appendicular Muscles

Control the movements of the upper and lower limbs.

Stabilize and control the movements of the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

Organized into groups based on their location in the body or the part of the skeleton they move.

Work in groups that are either synergistic or antagonistic.


Appendicular Muscles

Organized into specific groups.

muscles that move the pectoral girdle

muscles that move the glenohumeral joint/arm

arm and forearm muscles that move the elbow joint/forearm

forearm muscles that move the wrist joint, hand, and fingers

intrinsic muscles of the hand

Muscles That Move the Pectoral Girdle

Originate on the axial skeleton and insert on the clavicle and scapula.

Stabilize the scapula and move it to increase the arm’s angle of movements.

Some of the superficial muscles of the thorax are grouped together according to the scapular movement they direct.

elevation, depression, protraction, or retraction

Arm and Forearm Muscles That Move the Elbow Joint/Forearm

(Flexor) compartment

Posterior (extensor) compartment

Anterior compartment

primarily contains elbow flexors

Posterior compartment contains elbow extensors

the principal flexors

biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis

muscles that extend the elbow joint

triceps brachii and the anconeus

Forearm Muscles That Supinate and Pronate

Supinator muscle supinates the forearm.

Contraction of the pronator teres and pronator quadratus pronates the forearm.

Biceps brachii helps supinate the forearm.


Forearm Muscles That Move the Wrist Joint, Hand, and Fingers

Muscles in the forearm move the hand at the wrist and/or the fingers.

Extrinsic muscles of the wrist and hand originate on the forearm, not the wrist or hand.

Forearm Muscles That Move the Wrist Joint, Hand, and Fingers

Both the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus are located in the anterior compartment of the forearm.

their primary function is pronation

The supinator muscle is in the posterior compartment of the forearm.

its primary function is supination

Tendons of forearm muscles typically are surrounded by tendon (synovial) sheaths and held adjacent to the skeletal elements by strong fascial structures.

At the wrist, the deep fascia of the forearm forms thickened, fibrous bands termed retinacula.



Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand

Small muscles that both originate and insert on the hand.

They are housed entirely within the palm.

thenar group forms the thick, fleshy mass (thenar eminence) at the base of the thumb

hypothenar group forms a smaller fleshy mass (hypothenar eminence) at the base of the little finger

midpalmar group occupies the space between the first two groups


Muscles That Move the Pelvic
Girdle and Lower Limb

The most powerful and largest muscles in the body.

Several of these muscles cross and act upon two joints—the coxal joint (hip) and the knee joint.


Muscles That Move the Coxal Joint/Thigh

Most muscles that act on the coxal joint/thigh originate on the os coxae.

Stabilize the highly movable coxal joint and support the body during standing and walking.

Majority of the muscles that move the thigh at the coxal joint originate on the pelvic girdle and insert on the femur.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Multiple muscles insert on the anterior thigh and flex the coxal joint.

the psoas major and the iliacus have different origins, but they share the common insertion at the lesser trochanter of the femur

they merge and insert on the femur as the iliopsoas

work synergistically to flex and laterally rotate the thigh

the sartorius crosses over the anterior thigh and helps flex the thigh


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Five muscles are located in the medial compartment of the thigh.

Adduct the thigh and perform additional functions.

Adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis, and pectineus also flex the thigh.

Adductor magnus extends and laterally rotates the thigh.

Tensor fasciae latae abducts and medially rotates the thigh.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

The gluteus maximus.

the largest and heaviest of the three gluteal muscles

one of the largest muscles in the body

is the chief extensor of the thigh

laterally rotates the thigh

Deep to the gluteus maximus is the gluteus medius.

a powerful abductor of the thigh

medially rotates the thigh

intramuscular injections are often given here

The smallest of the gluteal muscles is the gluteus minimus.

lies deep to the gluteus medius

works with the gluteus medius to abduct and medially rotate the thigh


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Deep to the gluteal muscles are a group of muscles that collectively laterally rotate the thigh/coxal joint.


superior gemellus

obturator externus

inferior gemellus

obturator internus

quadratus femoris

Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

The posterior thigh contains a group of muscles that are collectively referred to as the hamstrings.

biceps femoris



Share a common origin on the ischial tuberosity of the os coxae.

Insert on the leg.

Move both the thigh and the knee.

Primary thigh movement is extension.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Vastus lateralis.

forms the anterolateral surface of the thigh

Vastus medialis.

forms the anteromedial surface of the thigh

Vastus intermedius.

positioned deep to the rectus femoris, and sandwiched between the other two vastus muscles

All four converge on a single quadriceps tendon, which extends to the patella and then continues inferiorly as the patellar ligament and inserts on the tibial tuberosity.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Patella becomes encased in this tendon and ligament.

Quadriceps femoris is the great extensor muscle of the leg

extends the knee

acts with the iliopsoas to flex the hip while the leg is off the ground

Sartorius projects obliquely across the anterior surface of the thigh from the lateral to the medial side.

acts on both the coxal and knee joints, flexing and laterally rotating the coxal joint while flexing and medially rotating the knee joint

the longest in the body


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

The medial (adductor) compartment of the thigh.

muscles that adduct the coxal joint

adduct the thigh

gracilis also flexes the knee joint/leg

The posterior (flexor) compartment of the thigh contains the three hamstring muscles discussed previously.

These muscles also flex the knee. The biceps femoris is a two-headed muscle that inserts on the lateral side of the leg.

The long head of the biceps femoris originates on the ischial tuberosity with the semimembranosus and semitendinosus.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

The short head of the biceps femoris originates on the linea aspera of the femur.

The short head cannot move the hip joint, but it does help the other hamstring muscles in flexing the knee.

Semimembranosus is deep to the semitendinosus.

originates from the ischial tuberosity and attaches to the medial side of the leg

Semitendinosus is superficial to the semimembranosus and is attached to the medial leg.


Muscles of the Hip and Thigh

Several leg muscles span the knee joint and work to flex the knee.





Leg Muscles

Muscles that move the ankle, foot, and toes are housed within the leg.

called the crural muscles

help flex the knee joint/leg

three compartments (anterior, lateral, and posterior) each with its own nerve and blood supply


Leg Muscles

Anterior compartment leg muscles

dorsiflex the foot and/or extend the toes

Extensor digitorum longus

sends four long tendons to attach to the dorsal surface of toes 2–5

dorsiflexes the foot and extends toes 2–5

Extensor hallucis longus

sends a tendon to the dorsum of the great toe (hallux)

dorsiflexes the foot and extends the great toe

Fibularis (peroneus) tertius

extends from the extensor digitorum longus muscle

dorsiflexes and weakly everts the foot


Leg Muscles

Tibialis anterior

primary dorsiflexor of the foot at the ankle

attaches to the medial plantar side of the foot

also inverts the foot

analogous to the wrist

tendons are held tightly against the ankle by multiple deep fascia thickenings (extensor retinaculum)


Leg Muscles

The lateral compartment leg muscles

contains two synergistic muscles that evert and plantar flex the foot

very powerful evertors of the foot

plantar flexion is a secondary function for them

Fibularis (peroneus) longus

superficial lateral muscle that covers the fibula

its tendon attaches to the plantar side of the foot

the fibularis (peroneus) brevis lies deep to the fibularis longus

its tendon inserts onto the base of the fifth metatarsal


Leg Muscles

The deep layer of the posterior compartment contains four muscles.

The flexor digitorum longus.

attaches to the distal phalanges of toes 2–5

plantar flexes the foot

flexes the MP, PIP, and DIP joints of toes 2–5

Flexor hallucis longus.

originates on the fibula, and yet

its tendon travels medially and runs along the plantar side of the foot to attach to the distal phalanx of the great toe

plantar flexes the foot and flexes the great toe


Leg Muscles

Tibialis posterior

plantar flexes and inverts the foot


forms the floor of the popliteal fossa, and acts to flex the leg

medially rotates the tibia slightly to “unlock” the fully extended knee joint

originates and inserts in the popliteal region

only moves the knee, not the foot


Leg Muscles

The superficial muscles and most of the deep muscles plantar flex the foot at the ankle.

The superficial layer of the posterior compartment contains three muscles.






Leg Muscles

Gastrocnemius is the most superficial muscle

referred to as the “calf”

spans both the knee and the ankle joints

flexes the knee joint and plantar flexes the foot


broad, flat muscle deep to the gastrocnemius

plantar flexes the foot


small muscle that is absent in some individuals

projects obliquely between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles

weak knee flexor and plantar flexor of the foot

Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot

Originate and insert within the foot.

Support the arches and move the toes to aid locomotion.

Most are comparable to the intrinsic muscles of the hand.

Rarely perform all the precise movements their names suggest.

The dorsal group contains only two muscles.

extensor hallucis brevis

extends the MP joint of the great toe

extensor digitorum brevis

extends the MP and PIP joints of toes 2–4


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