Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT

June 15, 2012 | By | Reply More

Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT

206 bones in skeletal system

Goal: identify bones and their prominent surface features

Axial   vs.    Appendicular

Axial  
•Skull
•Vertebral column
•Thoracic cage
Picture5 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT
Appendicular

Remaining 126 bones of

•Pectoral girdle
•Pelvic girdle
•Attached limbs
SKULL
•Cranium vs. facial bones
•Special case: hyoid bone

Picture6 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT

Sutures:

•Lambdoidal
•Sagittal
•Coronal
•Squamosal
Vertebral Column and Spinal Curvatures

Alternating concave and convex curves

Abnormal curvatures

•Kyphosis
•Lordosis
•Scoliosis
Spinal Deformities
Picture7 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT
Vertebrae
•Typical vertebra has 7 processes (function?)
•Atlas & Axis (special joint!)
•Intervertebral discs (anulus   fibrosus + nucleus pulposus)
Thoracic Cage
•Sternum
•12 pairs of ribs
•True vs. false ribs
•Vertebrosternal,   vertebrochondral,   vertebral
•Cracked ribs (composition of rib bone?    displaced fractures uncommon, why?)
Appendicular Division

Girdles with their associated extremities

Pectoral girdle: clavicle and scapula

Upper limb: humerus, ulna, radius, carpal bones, hand

Pelvic girdle:  Os coxae

Lower limb: femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal bones, foot

Picture8 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT

8 carpal (or wrist) bones:

From lateral to medial, first proximal then distal

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•Scaphoid (Navicular)
•Lunate
•Triquetrum
•Pisiform
•Trapezium
•Trapezoid
•Capitate
•Hamate
The Hand
•Metacarpals: bones in palm of hand
•Numbered from lateral to medial
•14 Phalanges
•Numbering same as with metacarpals, additionally: proximal, middle and distal phalanx
•Pollex has only two phalanges

Two os coxae are made up of 3 fused bones each

1.ileum
2.ischium
3.pubis

Compare

Male and female pelvis

True and false pelvis

•Femur: surgical vs. anatomic neck (also know major bone markings)
•Patella: large sesamoid bone (patellar ligament)
•Tibia: medial;  fibula: lateral, not weight bearing
•The real ankle bones are the malleoli
7 tarsal (or “ankle”) bones:
Picture10 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT

Posterior third of foot

From lateral to medial, first proximal then distal

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•Calcaneus
•Talus
•Navicular
•Cuboid
•3 Cuneiforms (lateral, intermediate, medial)
Foot
Picture9 Axial & Appendicular Skeleton PPT
•Naming and numbering of metatarsals and phalanges analogous to hand
•Hallux has only two phalanges

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Category: Medical, Powerpoint

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