Balanced occlusion : Definition , Types , Advantages
Definition: Balanced occlusion in complete dentures can be defined as stable simultaneous contact of the opposing upper and lower teeth in centric relation position and a continuous smooth bilateral gliding from this position to any eccentric position within the normal range of mandibular function.
- The wider and larger the ridge and the closer the teeth are to the ridge, the greater the balance
- Conversely, the smaller and narrower the ridge and the farther the teeth from the ridge, the poorer the level balance.
- The wider the ridge and the narrower the teeth buccolingually, the greater the balance
- The more lingual (inside) the teeth are place in relation to the ridge crest, the greater the balance
- The more centered the force of the occlusion antero posteriorly, the greater the stability of the base.
Types of Balanced occlusion
- Bilateral occlusal balance – this is present when there is equilibrium on both sides of the denture due to simultaneous contact of the teeth in centric and eccentric occlusion. It requires a minimum of three contacts for establishing a plane of equilibrium.
- Protrusive occlusal balance – this is present when the mandible moves essentially forward and the occlusal contacts are smooth and simultaneous in the posterior both anterior teeth.
This total concept of balanced complete denture occlusion must be considered in terms of the following:
- The tooth size and position in relation to the ridge size and shape.
- The extent of denture base coverage.
- Occlussal balance with stable contacts at the retruded border position and in an area (long centric)
N.B. – In both natural and artificial dentition, when centric relation and centric occlusion do not coincide, it is desirable to create an area within the fossae that will allow freedom of tooth movement from centric relation to centric occlusion (this is called long centric or freedom in centric)
- Right and left eccentric occlusal balance by simultaneous contacts at the limit of functional and Para functional activity.
- Intermediate occlusal balance for all positions between centric occlusion and all other functional or Para functional excursion to the right, left and protrusive.
Advantages of Balanced Occlusion
- Distribution of load
- Reduced trauma
- Functional movement