Basic principles of class 1 cavity preparation for amalgam | PPT | Download
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I. OUTLINE FORM – Smooth flowing, regular curves.
Angular irregularities in the outline are susceptible to fracture during condensation – a smooth flowing outline is easier to visualize and carve following condensation.
II. EXTENSIONS – Conservation of tooth structure is the basis for all cavity preparations in order to preserve the strength of the tooth.
However, sufficient extension of cavity preparations is necessary to ensure access (convenience form) for instrumentation, removal of defective tooth
structure, insertion and finish of the restorative
material, and maintenance of the restoration (prevention).
1. Caries and decalcifications
unsupported by sound dentin
3. Pits and fossae
4. Major fissures and grooves
5. Existing restorations
eliminates defective tooth
structure and eliminates areas (pits, fissures, etc.) which are susceptible to recurrent caries and facilities oral
hygiene procedures (extension for prevention).
B.Bucco – lingual extension
1. Extend fully in areas of buccal and lingual grooves to terminate on smooth surfaces.
to allow a smooth tooth
-restoration margin to be created (easier to finish and keep clean).
2. Extend minimally in areas of triangular ridges (optimal isthmus width is ¼ intercuspal distance or less) terminating on smooth surfaces.
to preserve the strength and function of the cups while eliminating susceptible grooves or defective tooth
structure (must be wide enough to allow condensation).
1. Stop short of the marginal ridge crest.
to preserve strength of marginal ridges.
2. Parallel the contour of the marginal ridge
to preserve a uniform bulk (strength) to the mariginal ridges.
Groove extensions are kept narrow (mesio-distally) where possible (consistent with access for condensation and outline form), terminating on smooth tooth
to preserve strength of cusps while eliminating susceptible grooves and/or defective tooth
structure (must be at least as wide as the narrowest condenser).
4. If marginal ridge is unsupported or very thin it should be included, resulting in a Class II preparation.
If not included the marginal ridge may fail (amalgam will be stronger than the unsupported enamel
III. RESISTANCE/ RETENTION FORM
A. Depth = ½ mm into dentin (approx. 2 mm measured at triangular ridges).
Minimum depth is required to provide sufficient bulk to prevent fracture and retain the amalgam.
B. Pulpal floor
1. Smooth and flat
2. Parallel to the occlusal plane
resists occlusal stress (resistance form) and forces of condensation.
C. Buccal and lingual walls
1. Smooth and curved mesio-distally.
2. Smooth and straight pulpo-occlusally.
Facilitates adaptation of amalgam and elimination of weak tooth
3. Converge slightly pulpo-occlusally in areas of triangular ridges (60).
To provide mechanical lock or retention to the occlusal portion and crate bulk at the margins.
4.Diverge slightly pulpo-occlusally in buccal and lingual groove extensions (60).
protects buccal and lingual surfaces from being undermined (RESISTANCE FORM).
D. Mesial and distal wall
1. Smooth and straight
facilitates adaptation of amalgam and elimination of weal tooth
2. Diverges slightly pulpo-occlusally (forms an obtuse angle with pulpal floor).
protects marginal ridge form being undermined or weakened (enamel
must be supported be dentin)
IV. CAVITY FINISH
A. Pulpo-occlusal line angle is well defined (no point angles are present) and follows general configuration of cavosurface outline.
increases retention of the amalgam restoration and preparation is more easily visualized.
B. Cavosurface margins
1. Sharp (well defined)
easier to visualize and carve
2. Sound (well supported)
provides marginal integrity.
C. Cleanliness – cavity is free of debris and moisture.
facilitates adaptation of amalgam to the cavity and improves the physical properties of the restoration by elimination of void or foreign material.
V. TISSUE RESERVATION
preserves isolation, eliminates moisture.
structure and restorations are intact
conservation of tooth
C. Adjacent soft tissue (perio-dontium) is intact
prevention of post-operative pain and inflammation.
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