Blood vessels and circulation PPT

June 17, 2012 | By | Reply More

Blood vessels and circulation PPT
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ŒDescribe the histological similarities and differences of the blood vessels
Explain the pattern and names of the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary & systemic circulations
ŽDescribe the circulatory changes that occur at birth, and the ones occurring  with exercise.

1 aorta & 1 pulmonary trunk   ~ 2.5 cm

10 bio capillaries (~ length 5,000 miles) ?

Histology of Blood Vessels

1.Tunica interna or intima (endothelium + c.t.)
2.Tunica media (muscle + c.t.)
3.Tunica externa or adventitia   (thick layer of c.t.)
Distinguishing Arteries from Veins:
Artery walls thicker (more muscle and elastic fibers)
Additional: internal & external elastic membranes

Artefacts when fixing slides:

Arterial walls contract; endothelium cannot contract: pleated appearance
Veins collapse
Resemble fenestrated capillaries, yet
1.irregular shapes
2.have longer pores
3.thinner (or no) basement membranes
Blood movement very slow
Found in the liver, heart, etc. sometimes called sinusoidal capillary.
Capillary Bed

= Capillary region supplying a body area

Metarteriole – shunt – preferred channel through a capillary bed
Precapillary sphincter – closes bed temporarily to redistribute blood flow
Arteriovenous anastomosis: interconnections , alternative routes of supply
Normal: From capillary bed into veins and back to heart

3 exceptions

Hypophysis _________________
Liver _________________
In kidney nephrons
Uneven Distribution of Blood

Total blood volume: ?

65 -70% in veins (= blood reservoir) lumen is larger than in corresponding arteries

30-35% in heart, arteries and capillaries


Blood Vessel Pathologies

1. Aneurysms
2. Atherosclerosis = type of Arteriosclerosis)thickening and toughening of arterial walls
Pathogenesis covered in Physiology
Gross Anatomy of Circulatory System

Pulmonary & Systemic Circulations

Pulmonary Circuit

Right ventricle into pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to lungs

Return by way of 4 pulmonary veins to left atrium
Systemic Circuit

Circle of Willis = Cerebral Arterial Circle

= Ring of vessels surrounding pituitary gland – supplies cerebrum and cerebellum

Brain can receive blood from carotids or vertebrals (significance?)

Descending aorta

• thoracic aorta

• abdominal aorta

Descending Aorta – Thoracic Area

Bronchial arteries – supply bronchi and lungs

Pericardial arteries – supply pericardium

Mediastinal arteries – supply mediatinal structures

Esophageal arteries – supply esophagus

Paired intercostal arteries- thoracic wall

Superior phrenic arteries – supply diaphragm


Descending Aorta – Abdominal Area

Celiac trunc – 3 branches – to liver, gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and spleen

Superior mesenteric– to pancreas and duodenum, small intestine and colon

Paired suprarenal – to adrenal glands

Paired renal – to kidneys

Paired gonadal – to testes or ovaries

Inferior mesenteric – to  terminal colon and rectum

Paired lumbar – to body wall

Circulation Changes at Birth

No blood coming from placenta

Ductus venosus becomes  ligamentum venosus (=ligamentum teres)

Foramen ovale closes & becomes fossa ovale

Ductus arteriosus closes and becomes ligamentum arteriosum

Umbilical vein and arteries degenerate


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