Cardiac tamponade ( Pericardial Diseases ) ppt

May 25, 2012 | By | Reply More

Cardiac tamponade ( Pericardial Diseases ) ppt

power point presentation

Cardiac tamponade (complication of pericardial effusion)

  • This is a clinical diagnosis –  It is based upon the patient’s symptoms
  • Investigations may be performed to confirm the suspected cause of the symptoms (pericardial effusion).
  • Occurs when the fluid accumulation around the heart impairs filling to such an extent that there is haemodynamic compromise.
  • It is a medical emergency and must be treated promptly.
  • Risk of death depends upon speed of diagnosis, treatment and underlying cause of the tamponade.

How much fluid is a problem?

  • Depends on rate of accumulation and compliance of the pericardium
  • 150ml that accumulated quickly could cause a problem
  • 1000ml that accumulates very slowly may be tolerated fairly well

Signs and symptoms

Acutely unwell
–Significant SOB, rapid breathing
–Cold, clammy extremities because of poor perfusion
–Kussmauls sign
Investigations (used to confirm only)
  • CXR – ‘globular’ heart
  • ECG (findings are suggestive not diagnostic)

– Sinus tachycardia

– Low voltage QRS complexes

– Electrical alternans (not always)

  • Echo

– Size and location of effusion

– Any evidence of diastolic collapse

– ‘Swinging’ of the heart

– Decrease of insp. flow across MV


  • Medical emergency – intensive care environment needed.
  • Oxygen
  • Volume expansion
  • Bed rest with leg elevation
  • Inotropic drugs if necessary

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Category: Medical

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