Cardiac tamponade ( Pericardial Diseases ) ppt
power point presentation
Cardiac tamponade (complication of pericardial effusion)
- This is a clinical diagnosis – It is based upon the patient’s symptoms
- Investigations may be performed to confirm the suspected cause of the symptoms (pericardial effusion).
- Occurs when the fluid accumulation around the heart impairs filling to such an extent that there is haemodynamic compromise.
It is a medical emergency and must be treated promptly.
Risk of death depends upon speed of diagnosis, treatment and underlying cause of the tamponade.
How much fluid is a problem?
- Depends on rate of accumulation and compliance of the pericardium
- 150ml that accumulated quickly could cause a problem
- 1000ml that accumulates very slowly may be tolerated fairly well
Signs and symptoms
- CXR – ‘globular’ heart
- ECG (findings are suggestive not diagnostic)
– Sinus tachycardia
– Low voltage QRS complexes
– Electrical alternans (not always)
– Size and location of effusion
– Any evidence of diastolic collapse
– ‘Swinging’ of the heart
– Decrease of insp. flow across MV
- Medical emergency – intensive care environment needed.
- Volume expansion
- Bed rest with leg elevation
- Inotropic drugs if necessary