Cartilage and Bone | Structure and Development | Anatomy ppt |

December 19, 2012 | By | Reply More

Cartilage and Bone | Structure and Development | Anatomy ppt |

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Cartilage and Bone

Cartilage–function, types, location

Bone Tissue–structure, types

Long Bone Structure and Development

Most common bone problems




What is cartilage?

Skeletal tissue–maintains certain shape and form

Very resilient (bouncy or rubbery), mostly water

Grows fast–forms embryonic skeleton


Kinds of cartilage

Hyaline cartilage–most common, found in joints

Elastic cartilage–epiglottis, ear

Fibrocartilage–annular fibrosis of intervertebral disk, menisci of knee


Bones provide:

Support and movement (limbs, axial skeleton)

Protection (skull bones)

Mineral storage

Blood cell development (long bone marrow)


Bone is alive!! Bone cell types:

Osteoblasts:  Make and deposit components of bone extracellular matrix

Osteoclasts:  Degrade and resorb bone for remodeling

Osteocytes:  “watcher cells”  Sit in bone and monitor its current status


Types of bony tissue

Compact Bone

Dense tissue at surface of  bones

Haversian canals

Osteocytes in lacunae

Highly vascularized


Types of bony tissue

Spongy bone

Trabeculae (oriented to give mechanical strength)

Interior of long bones, skull bones

Epiphyses of long bones

Intramembranous ossification (osteoblasts lay down bone around blood vessels in connective tissues of dermis (after 8 weeks of development)


Structure of a long bone

Diaphysis (shaft)




Compact bone

Spongy bone


Medullary cavity

Articular/hyaline cartilage

Nutrient V/A/N

Epyphyseal (growth) plates


Why do bones need to “remodel?”


Endochondral Ossification

Cartilage model

Bone collar forms in diaphysis (dense bone)

Cartilage chondrocytes in center of diaphysis die and cartilage disintegrates

Periosteal bud enters diaphysis

Makes spongy bone at ends of diaphysis (primary ossification center)

Epiphysis begins to ossify (secondary ossification center)

Hyaline cartilage remains only at

Epiphyseal surfaces (articular surfaces of joints)

Epiphyseal growth plates between diaphysis and epiphysis (primary and secondary ossification centers on either side)

Endochondral ossification centers—newly formed bone within cartilage shown is stained red


Osteoclasts         Osteoblasts

“Dig holes” with hydrochloric acid

Degrades calcium

Phagocytize collagen fibers and dead osteocytes

Line tubes (Haversian canals) left by osteoclasts

Lay down new bone in circular concentric lamellae

Unique to warm-blooded animals–dinosaurs???


Bone Fractures

Treatment is reduction

Closed–set in place by physical manipulation from outside body

Open–surgical placement of pins or screws



Fibrocartilaginous callus

Bony calllus

Remodeling by osteoclasts/osteoblasts

Types of Fractures


Fracture repair

Calcium regulation is negative feedback mechanism


Affects elderly, especially women

Bone resorption proceeds faster than deposition

Low estrogen levels implicated but estrogen replacement now considered risky

Importance of calcium in diet???

Leads to fractures

Compression fractures of vertebrae

Neck of femur

Bone grafts and artificial bone

Widely used cutting-edge technologies

Bone cells highly regenerative and move into any suitable matrix

Use bone pieces from same body—fibula

Use crushed bone from cadavers

Use bone substitutes—coral, synthetics—”nanotechnology”

Applications are numerous

Jaw bone filler for dental work

Birth defects


Bone repair


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Category: Medical, Powerpoint

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