Classification of Dental Caries
Classification : Caries can be classified according to –
1. Affected hard tissue
2. Location (smooth surface and pits and fissures , GV Black classification is based according to the location on the tooth)
3. Rate of progression
1. According to Affected Hard Tissues
Depending on which hard tissues are affected, it is possible to describe caries as involving –
Once the extent of decay reaches the deeper layer of dentin, “dentinal caries” is used.
Since cementum is the hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth, it is not often affected by decay unless the roots of teeth are exposed to the mouth. Although the term “cementum caries” may be used to describe the decay on roots of teeth, very rarely does caries affect the cementum alone. Roots have a very thin layer of cementum over a large layer of dentin, and thus most caries affecting cementum also affects dentin.
2. According to Location
There are 6 classes involved in Location.
- Class 1
- Class 2
- Class 3
- Class 4
- Class 5
- Class 6
- All pit and fissure restorations are Class I and They are assigned to three groups
- Restorations on occlusal surface of premolars and molars.
- Restorations on occlusal two thirds of the facial and lingual surfaces of molars
- Restorations on lingual surface of maxillary incisors.
- Restorations on the proximal surfaces of posterior teeth are class II
- Restorations on the proximal surfaces of anterior teeth that do not involve the incisal edge.
- Restorations on the proximal surfaces of the anterior teeth that do involve the incisal edge are class IV
- Restorations on the gingival third of the facial or lingual surfaces of all teeth.
- Restorations on the incisal edge of anterior teeth or the occlusal cusp heights of posterior teeth
3. According to Rate of Progression
- “Acute” signifies a quickly developing condition, whereas “chronic” describes a condition which has taken an extended time to develop.
- Recurrent caries, also described as secondary, are caries that appears at a location with a previous history of caries. This is frequently found on the margins of fillings and other dental restorations.
- incipient caries describes decay part of the tooth in which the lesion is just coming into existence
- Arrested caries describes a lesion on a tooth which was previously demineralized but was remineralized before causing cavitations.
4. According to Etiology
- Baby bottle caries
- Rampant caries
- In some instances, caries are described in other ways that might indicate the cause. “Baby bottle caries”, “early childhood caries”, or “baby bottle tooth decay” is a pattern of decay found in young children with their deciduous (baby) teeth.
- The teeth most likely affected are the maxillary anterior teeth, the name for this type of caries comes from the fact that the decay usually is a result of allowing children to fall asleep with sweetened liquids in their bottles or feeding children sweetened liquids multiple times during the day.
- Another pattern of decay is “rampant caries”, which signifies advanced or severe decay on multiple surfaces of many teeth. Rampant caries may be seen in individuals with xerostomia, poor oral hygiene, due to drug-induced dry mouth and/or large sugar intake. If rampant caries is a result of previous radiation to the head and neck, it may be described as radiation-induced caries.
Category: Oral Pathology