Diabetes mellitus : definition, causes, classification

August 2, 2011 | By | Reply More


A metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both .

Heterogeneous syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin action (as a result of complete depletion or peripheral resistance)

DM is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia as a reason of impaired effect of insulin

  • absolute
  • relative

Causes of insulin deficiency

  • absolute: destruction of the β-cells of the islets of Langerhan´s
  • relative :

–        insulin

  •   abnormal molecule of insulin (mutation)
  •  defective conversion of preproinsulin to insulin
  • circulating antibodies against insulin or receptor

–        insulin resistance in peripheral tissue

Classification of DM

Diabetes mellitus of type 1 (T1DM)
Diabetes mellitus of type 2 (T2DM)
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Other specific types- genetic defects of β cell function (MODY)- genetic abnormalities of insulin receptor- exocrine pancreas disorders

– endocrinopathies

– iatrogenic

– rare genetic syndromes

–   with obesity-   without obesity

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Category: Medicine

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