Diagnosis, Clinical features, Complications of DM

August 2, 2011 | By | Reply More

Diagnosis of DM:

  • classical symptoms of diabetes + random plasma glycemia ≥11.1 mmol/l

–        any time of the day

–        symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia and rapid loose of weight

  •  FPG (fasting plasma glucose) 7.0 mmol/l

–        fasting means at least 8 h from the last meal

  •  2-h PG (postprandial glucose) 11.1 mmol/l during oGTT

–        according to WHO standard load of 75g of glucose

Interpretation of glycemia

  • FPG:

–        ≤6.1 mmol/l = normal glycemia

–        6.1-7.0 mmol/l = IGT (impaired glucose tolerance)

–        ³7.0 mmol/l = diabetes

  • OGTT – 2h PG:

–        ≤7.8 mmol/l = normal glucose tolerance

–        7.8 – 11.1 mmol/l = IGT

–        ³11.1 mmol/l = diabetes

Clinical presentation of DM

  1. due to the increase of blood osmolality, osmotic diuresis and dehydratation

–        classical:

  • polyuria
  • thirst
  • polydipsia
  • weight loss
  •  temporary impairment of vision
  • cutaneous infections
  1.  acute:

–        hyperglycemic coma

  • non-ketoticidotic
  • ketoacidotic

Complications of DM

  • microvascular

–        diabetic retinopathy

–        diabetic nephropathy

–        diabetic neuropathy

  •  macrovascular

–        atherosclerosis (CAD, peripheral and cerebrovascular vascular disease)

  • combined

–        diabetic foot (ulcerations, amputations and Charcot´s  joint)

  • others

–        periodontitis

–        cataract

–        glaucoma

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Category: Medical, Medicine

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