Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) : what and why occurs??
Synonyms: Consumption coagulopathy, Defibrination syndrome.
- DIC is a thrombotic disorder that ends up as a bleeding disorder.
- Activation of the coagulation system with widespread fibrin formation and deposition.
- Inappropriate release of tissue factor into the circulation.
- Consumption of platelets, fibrinogen and factors II, V, VIII and XIII.
- It is haemolytic and haemorrhagic anaemia.
- Red cell fragmentation and intravascular haemolysis occur.
Causes/etiology of DIC:
1.Obstetric and gynaecological problems
– Retained dead fetus
– Placental abruption
– Amniotic fluid embolism
– Septic abortion
– Release of massive amounts of tissue factor into the circulation
– Surgery or trauma
4.Haemolytic transfusion reactions
– Gram negative septicaemia
– Clostridium welchii septicaemia
– Severe falciparum malaria (blackwater fever)
– Widespread mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma
– Liver failure
– Pulmonary embolism
– Snake venom