Endocrine System PPT : Major endocrine glands

June 16, 2012 | By | Reply More

Endocrine System PPT

1.Compare the basic organization and function of the ES and the NS
2.Describe the structural and functional organization of  the hypothalamus and the pituitary and explain their relationship
3.Discuss the locations and structures of the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands as well as the thymus and the endocrine part of the pancreas.
4.List the hormones (and their function) produced by these glands.
5.Briefly review the results of abnormal hormone production
Endocrine System Overview
Ductless glands produce hormones
Gland may be entire organ or interspersed bits of tissue
Chemical classification of hormones
Target tissues are identified by receptors

Control Center for internal environment

Regulates nervous and endocrine systems via 3 mechanisms:

1.ANS centers exert nervous control on adrenal medulla
2.ADH and Oxytocin production
3.Regulatory hormone production (RH and IH) controls pituitary gland directly and all other endocrine glands indirectly
Pituitary Gland (= Hypophysis)


Infundibulum – connection to hypothalamus

In the sella turcica

Two parts with an embryonic double origin

Posterior Pituitary = neurohypophysis Storage shed for ADH and Oxytocin (produced in ?)

Anterior Pituitary = adenohypophysis production of 7 peptide hormones,


Hypophyseal Portal System

Portal systems: two capillary networks in serial arrangement Advantage?
Named after their destination: . . .
Portal veins: blood vessels that link two capillary networks
Anterior surface of trachea just inferior of thyroid cartilage (or Adam’s apple)
Two lobes connected by isthmus
Microscopic thyroid follicles produce thyroid hormone
C Cells – produce calcitonin (¯Ca2+)
Thyroid Gland Function
Thyroxin (T4) and  triiodothyronine (T3) ® speed up metabolic rate
Calcitonin  lowers blood Ca2+  levels
Thyroid pathologies: Hyper- and Hypothyroidism
Four Parathyroid Glands

4 tiny glands embedded in the back of the thyroid (superior and inferior)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH; sometimes also called parathormone)

Function: antagonist to Calcitonin

Thymus Gland

Inside thoracic cavity immediately posterior to sternum above the heart
Most active in infancy and childhood – Largest just before puberty
Thymosin – enhances lymphocyte production and competence.  (important for immune system)
Adrenal or Suprarenal Gland
Cortex: corticosteroid production aldosterone, cortisol, sexhormone
Medulla: modified sympathetic ganglion produces adrenaline and noradrenaline (parallels sympathetic division of ANS)
Part of endocrine and   digestive systems.  (99% exocrine)
Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
a cells: glucagon (­ blood sugar levels by   stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose)
b cells: insulin (¯ blood sugar levels by causing the cells to take up glucose for use by the mitochondria)
d cells: somatostatin
Endocrine System PPT : Major endocrine glands download option

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Category: Medical

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