Female Reproductive System PPT

June 20, 2012 | By | Reply More

Female Reproductive System PPT

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All organs are internal and closely associated

–  Primary reproductive organs: ?
–  Secondary reproductive organs: ?

Female repro system must  produce gametes AND maintain developing embryo


Suspended by ovarian ligament & suspensory ligament


1.Ova production
2.Hormone production
Oogenesis (= ovum production)

takes place insideovarian follicles in ovaries as part of ovarian cycle

Oogonia (= stem cells) complete mitotic divisions before birth

At birth: ~ 2 mio primary oocytes

At puberty: ~ 400,000 primary oocytes

40 years later: 0 (even though only ~ 500 used)  →  Atresia



Ovarian cycles start at puberty under influence of ___

Primordial follicle

↓Each month some proceed

Primary follicle

↓Few  proceed

Secondary follicle

↓Few  proceed

Tertiary (Graafian follicle)


Oocyte and follicular cells shed into abdominal cavity


1.Empty follicle forms corpus luteum which produces progesterone
2.Corpus luteum degenerates and becomes corpus albicans
3.GnRH increases under low estrogen and progesterone levels
Uterine Tube

= Fallopian tube = oviduct   = salpinx

Two muscular tubes

–infundibulum with fimbriae
–Ampulla (place of fertilization)
–intramural portion

Tubal ligation


Uterine Tube Histology

Ciliated and non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium

Ciliary movement and periodic peristaltic contractions move ova

Secretion of nutrient substances

The Uterus

Uterine wall ~ 1.5 cm

made up of

3.Incomplete perimetrium

Blood supply

–Uterine arteries from internal iliac
–Ovarian arteries from abdominal aorta (inferior to renal arteries)
Histology of Endometrium
Functional zone – deciduum, sheds during menses
–menstruation – flow sheds functionalis layer of endometrium
–proliferative phase – under influence of estrogen basal cells proliferate
–secretory phase – progesterone  maintains functionalis
Basilar zone – permanent layer, deep to functionalis
Functions of Uterus
Protection of embryo/fetus
Nutritional support
Waste removal
Ejection of fetus at birth
Cervix and Vagina

Cervix attaches to vagina at ~ 90° angle

Fornix – pocket surrounding uterine cervix (surgical access to pelvic cavity; location of birth control device)

Vagina – fibro-muscular organ serving as

–receptacle for intercourse
–passageway for menstrual products
–birth canal

 The Mammary Gland

Modified sweat gland

Overlaying the ____________ muscle

15-20 separate lobes separated by suspensory ligaments;  each lobe contains several secretory lobules

Lactiferous ducts leaving lobules; converge into 15-20 lactiferous sinuses

Milk stored in lactiferous sinus until released at tip of nipple

Lymphatic Drainage of Mammary Glands  . . . . . . is of considerable clinical importance, why ??

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Category: Medical

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