Functions and Composition of Blood PPT

June 16, 2012 | By | Reply More

Functions and Composition of Blood PPT

Discuss the composition of blood including the functions of the various components

Explain the anatomy and functions of the red blood cells, including a description of blood typing

Discuss the types of white blood cells found in the blood and give the functions of each

Give a brief accounting of the platelets

Review hemopoiesis, including RBC and leukocyte formation

Functions of Blood

Distribution – nutrients, wastes, hormones, gases, etc.
Self-sealing – hemostasis
Disease/ infection fighting

Blood = connective tissue

1. extracellular matrix: Plasma

2. specialized cells: (= Formed elements)




Plasma Composition

Transports organic and inorganic molecules, formed elements, and heat

Water       92%
Plasma proteins   7%
Other solutes         1%
Plasma Proteins
Albumin (60%) Major contributor to osmotic concentration of plasma. Transport of lipids and steroid hormones
Globulins (35%) Transport ions, hormones, lipids; immune function
Fibrinogen (4%) Essential component of clotting system (conversion to insoluble fibrin)
Regulatory proteins (< 1%)  ????
Other Solutes
Electrolytes: Normal extracellular fluid ion composition  (????)
Organic nutrients: glucose, FA, AA
Organic wastes: urea, bilirubin
Difference between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid :

Plasma has more:

Dissolved O2  O2 diffuses out into tissue
Dissolved proteins (too big to cross caps.)
– g globulins
– a and b globulins

Similar concentration:  Salts & small molecules


Difference between plasma and serum?

serum = plasma –

. . . . 2 more things:

Most plasma proteins are made in liver.  Exception:  ?

Lipoproteins = particles containing lipids (cholesterol & triglycerids) and proteins (albumins & globulins)

Formed Elements

Red and White Blood Cells




RBCs = Erythrocytes

Measured by hematocrit or PCV

Most abundant blood cell: 1000 RBCs/1 WBC

Contain hemoglobin, carry  O2

Very regular shape – biconcave discs

Anucleate: Lifespan ~ 120 days replacement rate ~ 3 mio RBCs / sec

Structure of Hemoglobin (Hb)

Fe ion     in heme group  reversibly binds O2

How many oxygen molecules can 1 Hb molecule carry?

ABO & Rh Blood Types

Blood groups (types) based on specific RBC surface antigens (= proteins)
> 30 common varieties of antigens known. Most important ABO & Rh
ABO Blood typing:  4 combinations possible
A surface antigen = blood type A
B surface antigen = blood type B
both surface antigens = type AB
neither surface antigen = type O
Rh surface antigen = + blood type
no Rh antigen = negative blood type
. . . 2 – 8 months after birth:
Anti-A and anti-B antibodies can be  formed in plasma !
Transfusion Reaction
Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal!

Universal Donor vs.   Universal Recipient

Only for emergencies – must be given slowly !

Clinical Brief

Anemia: p. 536

Reduced oxygen carrying ability of blood.  Causes??


Erythrocytosis: excessive increase in RBCs

Polycythemia vera:

Blood Doping: p. 545

Via direct transfusion, or

EPO use

WBCs = Leukocytes

Quantity and type determined by differential WBC count

Circulating WBCs are only a small fraction of total WBCs.  Most are located in ?



Neutrophil (= PMN)

Up to ~ 70% (~ 2/3) of circulating WBCs

Cytoplasm packed with pale granules containing lysosomal enzymes


~ 2% – 4% of circulating WBCs

Granules stain with eosin

Increased in allergies and parasitic infections


< 1% of circulating WBCs
Granules stain with basic dyes and contain histamine
Discharge of histamine promotes inflammation at site of injury (Similar to mast cells)
~ 2% – 8% of circulating WBCs
Large kidney shaped nucleus
In tissue called Macrophage
~ 20% – 30% of circulating WBCs
Relatively small (slightly larger than RBCs)
Large round nucleus
B, T, NK
Platelets = Thrombocytes

Cell fragments of Megakaryocytes

(~ 4,000 thrombocytes per Megakaryocyte)

~ 160 mm

Lifespan ~ 12 days

involved in blood  clotting

Abnormal Blood Cell Counts

Leukopenia <  2,500/ mL (normal 6000 – 9000)

Leukocytosis > 30,000/ mL

Thrombocytopenia:  <  80,000/ mL (normal ~ 350,000)

Thrombocytosis:    > 1,000,000/ mL


Lymphopenia vs. _____________

_________vs. Neutrophilia


 Hemopoiesis =  Blood Cell Formation

Hemocytoblasts: One type of stem cell for all blood cells

. . . then differentiation into 4 types of progenitor stem cells:






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