Human chromosomes : autosomes and sex chromosomes

May 24, 2012 | By | Reply More

Human chromosomes : autosomes and sex chromosomes

Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes and sex chromosomes. Certain genetic traits are linked to a person’s sex and are passed on through the sex chromosomes. The autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information. All act in the same way during cell division. Human cells have 23 pairs of large linear nuclear chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell. In addition to these, human cells have many hundreds of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Sequencing of the human genome has provided a great deal of information about each of the chromosomes. Below is a table compiling statistics for the chromosomes, based on the Sanger Institute’s human genome information in the Vertebrate Genome Annotation (VEGA) database.Number of genes is an estimate as it is in part based on gene predictions. Total chromosome length is an estimate as well, based on the estimated size of unsequenced heterochromatin regions.

source : wikipedia.org

Chromosome Genes Total base pairs Sequenced base pairs
1 4,220 247,199,719 224,999,719
2 1,491 242,751,149 237,712,649
3 1,550 199,446,827 194,704,827
4 446 191,263,063 187,297,063
5 609 180,837,866 177,702,766
6 2,281 170,896,993 167,273,993
7 2,135 158,821,424 154,952,424
8 1,106 146,274,826 142,612,826
9 1,920 140,442,298 120,312,298
10 1,793 135,374,737 131,624,737
11 379 134,452,384 131,130,853
12 1,430 132,289,534 130,303,534
13 924 114,127,980 95,559,980
14 1,347 106,360,585 88,290,585
15 921 100,338,915 81,341,915
16 909 88,822,254 78,884,754
17 1,672 78,654,742 77,800,220
18 519 76,117,153 74,656,155
19 1,555 63,806,651 55,785,651
20 1,008 62,435,965 59,505,254
21 578 46,944,323 34,171,998
22 1,092 49,528,953 34,893,953
X (sex chromosome) 1,846 154,913,754 151,058,754
Y (sex chromosome) 454 57,741,652 25,121,652
Total 32,185 3,079,843,747 2,857,698,560

Category: Anatomy, Medical, Physiology

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