Joint Articulations and Movements PPT

June 15, 2012 | By | Reply More

Joint Articulations and Movements PPT

Functional / Structural Classification of Joints

1.Synarthrosis (no movement)
1.Bony Fusion (Synostosis)
2.Fibrous (Suture and Gomphosis)
3.Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis)
2.Amphiarthrosis (little movement)
1.Fibrous (Syndesmosis)
2.Cartilaginous (Symphysis)
3) Diarthrosis  (free movement)
Always synovial joints
mono, di-, and triaxial
Strength vs. motility   The greater the range of motion,   the weaker the joint.
Dislocation = luxation
Partial dislocation = ?
“Double jointed”
Diarthroses = Synovial Joints
Have synovial cavity = space between two bones
Components that are always present
Components that are sometimes present
3 Types of Motion at Synovial Joints
Linear motion = gliding
Angular motion :
flexion, extension, hyperextension
ab-, adduction
left – right, internal or medial, external or lateral
supination, pronation
Special Movements

Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion

Protraction, retraction

Elevation, depression

Eversion  inversion

6 types of Diarthroses

1.Gliding Joint
2.Hinge Joint
3.Pivot Joint
4.Ellipsoidal joint
5.Saddle joint
6.Ball & Socket joint
Gliding Joint

articulating             surfaces flat.

• also found between carpals and tarsals

• only slight movement  – rotation prevented by  ?


Hinge Joint

Convex surface of bone 1 fits into concave surface of bone 2

found in ?
Pivot Joint

Projection of bone 1 articulates within ring of bone 2

Also found in proximal ends of ulna and radius  →  pronation and supination

Ellipsoidal (Condyloid)  Joint

Oval shaped condyle of bone 1 fits into elliptical cavity of bone 2

Also found between phalanges & metacarpals/-tarsals

Angular motion in two planes (=    )
Saddle Joint

Articular surfaces shaped like saddle and rider

Modified condyloid joint

Extensive angular motion without rotation
Also between malleus and incus
Ball and Socket Joint

Ball like surface of bone 1 fits into cuplike depression of bone 2

Found in ___________
Allows for flexion, ab- or adduction and rotation ( _____axial)
Representative Articulations

Temporomandibular Joint

Mostly hinge joint, some gliding and rotation

Articular disc


Intervertebral articulations

Gliding joints between ____________________

Intervertebral discs:  (Amphiarthroses)

annulus fibrosus: tough outer layer (fibrocartilage)
nucleus pulposus: soft, gelatinous core
Account for ~25% of vertebral column height – H2O loss during aging

Intervertebral ligaments


Disc Problems

Slipped disc vs. herniated disc
Most common sites for  disc problems:
C5 – C6
L4 – L5
L5 – S1
Laminectomy ( surgical removal vertebral arch by shaving laminae to access disc)
Glenohumeral Joint
Greatest range of motion (due to loose  and shallow)
Most frequently dislocated
Stability provided by?
Hip Joint
Deep well fitted _______ joint
Participants ?
Extracapsular and intracapsular ligaments (ligamentum teres = ligamentum capitis femoris)
Surrounding muscles
Most important normal movement?
Knee Joint
Much more complex than elbow
Much less stable than other ______
structurally 3 separate joints
Extra- and intracapsular ligaments
Locking of knee due to external rotation of tibia

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Category: Medical

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