Joints of the thoracic cage
• The manubriosternal joint is a symphysis. It usually ossifies after the age of 30.
• The xiphisternal joint is also a symphysis.
• The 1st sternocostal joint is a primary cartilaginous joint. The rest (2nd to 7th) are synovial joints. All have a single synovial joint except for the 2nd which is double
• The costochondral joints (between ribs and costal cartilages) are primary cartilaginous joints.
• The interchondral joints (between the costal cartilages of the 8th, 9th and 10th ribs) are synovial joints.
• The costovertebral joints comprise two synovial joints formed by the articulations of the demifacets on the head of each rib with the bodies of its corresponding vertebra together with that of the vertebra above. The 1st and 10th–12th ribs have a single synovial joint with their corresponding
• The costotransverse joints are synovial joints formed by the articulations between the facets on the rib tubercle and the transverse process of its corresponding vertebra.