Lower Limb Anatomy MCQ Questions With Answers | Part-2
11. A 21-year-old man was involved in a motorcycle accident, resulting in destruction of the groove in the lower surface of the cuboid bone. Which of the following muscle tendons is most likely damaged?
(A) Flexor hallucis longus
(B) Peroneus brevis
(C) Peroneus longus
(D) Tibialis anterior
(E) Tibialis posterior
12. A construction worker falls feet fi rst from a roof. He sustains a fracture of the groove on the undersurface of the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus bone. Which of the following muscle tendons is most likely torn?
(A) Flexor digitorum brevis
(B) Flexor digitorum longus
(C) Flexor hallucis brevis
(D) Flexor hallucis longus
(E) Tibialis posterior
13. A thoracic surgeon is going to collect a portion of the greater saphenous vein for coronary bypass surgery. He has observed that this vein runs:
(A) Posterior to the medial malleolus
(B) Into the popliteal vein
(C) Anterior to the medial condyles of the
tibia and femur
(D) Superfi cial to the fascia lata of the thigh
(E) Along with the femoral artery
14. A 52-year-old woman slipped and fell and now complains of being unable to extend her leg at the knee joint. Which of the following muscles was paralyzed as a result
of this accident?
(D) Quadriceps femoris
(E) Biceps femoris
15. A patient experiences weakness in dorsifl exing and inverting the foot. Which of the following muscles is damaged?
(A) Peroneus longus
(B) Peroneus brevis
(C) Tibialis anterior
(D) Extensor digitorum longus
(E) Peroneus tertius
Questions 16–20: A 62-year-old woman slips and falls on the bathroom fl oor. As a result, she has a posterior dislocation of the hip joint and a fracture of the neck of the femur.
16. Rupture of the ligamentum teres capitis femoris may lead to damage to a branch of which of the following arteries?
(A) Medial circumfl ex femoral
(B) Lateral circumfl ex femoral
(D) Superior gluteal
(E) Inferior gluteal
17. Fracture of the neck of the femur results in avascular necrosis of the femoral head, probably resulting from lack of blood supply from which of the following arteries?
(B) Superior gluteal
(C) Inferior gluteal
(D) Medial femoral circumfl ex
(E) Lateral femoral circumfl ex
18. If the acetabulum is fractured at its posterosuperior margin by dislocation of the hip joint, which of the following bones could be involved?
(E) Head of the femur
19. The woman experiences weakness when abducting and medially rotating the thigh after this accident. Which of the following muscles is most likely damaged?
(B) Obturator internus
(C) Quadratus femoris
(D) Gluteus maximus
(E) Gluteus minimus
20. The woman undergoes hip surgery. If all of the arteries that are part of the cruciate anastomosis of the upper thigh are ligated, which of the following arteries maintains blood fl ow?
(A) Medial femoral circumfl ex
(B) Lateral femoral circumfl ex
(C) Superior gluteal
(D) Inferior gluteal
(E) First perforating
11. The Answer is C. The groove in the lower surface of the cuboid bone is occupied by the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle. The fl exor hallucis longus tendon occupies a groove on the posterior surface of the body of the talus and a groove on the inferior surface of the calcaneus during its course. The tibialis posterior muscle tendon occupies the medial malleolar groove of the tibia. Other muscle tendons are not in the groove of the tarsal bones.
12. The Answer is D. The tendon of the fl exor hallucis longus muscle occupies fi rst the groove on the posterior surface of the talus and then the groove on the undersurface of the sustentaculum tali. None of the other tendons would have been affected in such an injury.
13. The Answer is D. The greater saphenous vein ascends superfi cial to the fascia lata. It courses anterior to the medial malleolus and posterior to the medial condyles of the tibia and femur and terminates in the femoral vein by passing through the saphenous opening. The small saphenous vein drains into the popliteal vein. The greater saphenous vein does not run along with the femoral artery.
14. The Answer is D. The quadriceps femoris muscle includes the rectus femoris muscle and the vastus medialis, intermedialis, and lateralis muscles. They extend the leg at the knee joint. The semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris muscles (the hamstrings) extend the thigh and fl ex the leg. The sartorius and gracilis muscles can fl ex the thigh and the leg.
15. The Answer is C. The tibialis anterior can dorsifl ex and invert the foot. The peroneus longus and brevis muscles can plantar fl ex and evert the foot, the peroneus tertius can dorsifl ex and evert the foot, and the extensor digitorum longus can dorsifl ex the foot and extend the toes.
16. The Answer is C. The obturator artery gives rise to an acetabular branch that runs in the round ligament of the head of the femur.
17. The Answer is D. In adults, the chief arterial supply to the head of the femur is from the branches of the medial femoral circumfl ex artery. The lateral femoral circumfl ex artery may supply the femoral head by anastomosing with the medial femoral circumfl ex artery. The posterior branch of the obturator artery gives rise to the artery of the head of the femur, which runs in the round ligament of the femoral head and is usually insuffi cient to supply the head of the femur in adults but is an important source of blood to the femoral head in children. The superior and inferior gluteal arteries do not supply the head of the femur.
18. The Answer is C. The acetabulum is a cup-shaped cavity on the lateral side of the hip bone and is formed superiorly by the ilium, posteroinferiorly by the ischium, and anteromedially by the pubis. The sacrum and the head of the femur do not participate in the formation of the acetabulum.
19. The Answer is E. The gluteus medius or minimus abducts and rotates the thigh medially. The piriformis, obturator internus, quadratus femoris, and gluteus maximus muscles can rotate the thigh laterally.
20. The Answer is C. The superior gluteal artery does not participate in the cruciate anastomosis of the thigh. The inferior gluteal artery, transverse branches of the medial and lateral femoral circumfl ex arteries, and an ascending branch of the fi rst perforating artery form the cruciate anastomosis of the thigh.