Material for Implant
•Implant material should have suitable mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and structural biostability in physiologic environments.
of biomaterials sciences has resulted in classification schemes for implantable materials according to chemical composition and biologic response.
•Based on tissue response and systemic toxicity effects of the implant
Long term effects
•Biotolerant materials, such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), are usually characterized by thin fibrous tissue interface.
•Chemical product irritate surrounding tissues.
•Bioinert materials, such as titanium and aluminum oxide, are characterized by direct bone contact, or osseointegration, at the interface under favorable mechanical conditions.
•Bioactive materials, such as glass and calcium phosphate ceramics, have a bone-implant interface characterized by direct chemical bonding of the implant with surrounding bone.
•Free calcium and phosphate compounds at the surface.
Tissue response to implant materials
•Most commonly used biomaterials:
•Commercially pure (CP) titanium
•Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
•Cobalt-chromium-molydenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy is most used for subperiosteal implants.
•Calcium phosphate ceramics, Hydroxyapatite (HA), used for augmentation material or coating on surface.
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