Melanoma: Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Types, Differential diagnosis, Treatment

September 20, 2011 | By | Reply More

Melanoma: Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Types, Differential diagnosis, Treatment

Definition: Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm originating either de novo from melanocytes, or from a benign melanocytic lesion.

Etiology: Unknown. Ultraviolet radiation is an important causative factor for skin melanoma.

Clinical features:

  • Primary oral melanoma is uncommon, representing 0.5–1.5% of melanomas.
  • Clinically, it presents as a black or brown macule, plaque, or nodule that may be ulcerated .
  • The lesions are usually characterized by an irregular margin and a tendency to spread.
  • The palate, upper gingiva, and alveolar mucosa are most commonly affected.

Types:

Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, oral melanoma is classified into three forms:

  • lentigo maligna melanoma (best prognosis),
  • superficial spreading melanoma (good prognosis),
  • nodular melanoma (poor prognosis).

Laboratory tests :Histopathological examination.

Differential diagnosis:

  • Pigmented nevi,
  • ephelis,
  • lentigo,
  • lentigo maligna,
  • amalgam tattoo,
  • pyogenic granuloma,
  • Kaposi sarcoma.

Treatment :

  • Surgical excision,
  • radiotherapy,
  • chemotherapy.

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Category: Dental, Oral Pathology, Oral Surgery

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