Melanoma: Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Types, Differential diagnosis, Treatment
Definition: Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm originating either de novo from melanocytes, or from a benign melanocytic lesion.
Etiology: Unknown. Ultraviolet radiation is an important causative factor for skin melanoma.
- Primary oral melanoma is uncommon, representing 0.5–1.5% of melanomas.
- Clinically, it presents as a black or brown macule, plaque, or nodule that may be ulcerated .
- The lesions are usually characterized by an irregular margin and a tendency to spread.
- The palate, upper gingiva, and alveolar mucosa are most commonly affected.
Based on clinical and histopathological criteria, oral melanoma is classified into three forms:
- lentigo maligna melanoma (best prognosis),
- superficial spreading melanoma (good prognosis),
- nodular melanoma (poor prognosis).
Laboratory tests :Histopathological examination.
- Pigmented nevi,
- lentigo maligna,
- amalgam tattoo,
- pyogenic granuloma,
- Kaposi sarcoma.
- Surgical excision,