Oral Submucous Fibrosis Etiology, Histopathology ,Treatment
Oral submucous fibrosis (or OSMF) is a chronic,complex,irreversible,highly potent pre-cancerous condition characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction and progressive fibrosis of the submucosal tissues (lamina propria and deeper connective tissues).
Definition : Oral Submucous Fibrosis ( OSMF ) is a pre-cancerous condition. It occurs below the mucous membrane. Fibrosis occurs in sub-mucous (CT) layer.
1. Indian subcontinent (IndiaBangladeshSri LankaPakistan)
2. Part of China and Taiwan
3. Nil in Europe but occurs in migrating people from the sub-continent
1. Betel quid
2. Areca nut
4. Alcohol consumption
5. Reverse smoking
1. The mucous membrane layer and muscular layer will be atrophied.
2. The sub-mucous layer is avascular; so high glazy appearance.
1. Withdrawal of causative factors
- a. Corticosteroid: Dexamethasone either topical or injection form within the lesion. Hyaluronidaze enzyme is given with the Dexamethasone
- b. Antitoxidant
- c. Vasodilators
- a. The band should be removed by surgical excision but it causes more scars.
- b. Split thickness skin graft may be done
- c. Temporalis muscle myotomy
- d. Coronoidectomy
4. Physiotherapy: Muscle stressing exercise if patient can not open the mouth.
5. Follow-up in every month depending upon the surgeon. The condition must be followed to observe any cancerous change.