Regional anesthesia PPT

June 28, 2012 | By | Reply More

Regional anesthesia PPT

Powerpoint lecture slide

Regional anesthesia – Definition

Rendering a specific area of the body, e.g. foot, arm, lower extremities, insensate to stimulus of surgery or other instrumentation

Regional anesthesia – Uses

•Provide anesthesia for a surgical procedure
•Provide analgesia post-operatively or during labor and delivery
•Diagnosis or therapy for patients with chronic pain syndromes
Regional anesthesia – types
•Intravenous block (“Bier” block)
•Peripheral (named) nerve, e.g. radial n.
•Plexus – brachial, lumbar
•Central neuraxial – epidural, spinal
Topical Anesthesia
•Application of local anesthetic to mucous membrane – cornea, nasal/oral mucosa
•Uses :
–awake oral, nasal intubation, superficial surgical procedure
•Advantages :
–technically easy
–minimal equipment
•Disadvantages :
–potential for large doses leading to toxicity
Local/Field Anesthesia
•Application of local subcutaneously to anesthetize distal nerve endings
–Suturing, minor superficial surgery, line placement, more extensive surgery with sedation
–minimal equipment, technically easy, rapid onset
–potential for toxicity  if  large field
IV Block – “Bier” block
•Injection of local anesthetic intravenously for anesthesia of an extremity
–any  surgical procedure on an extremity
–technically  simple, minimal equipment, rapid onset
duration limited by tolerance of  tourniquet pain, toxicity
Peripheral nerve block
•Injecting local anesthetic near the course of a named nerve
– Surgical procedures in the distribution of the blocked nerve
–relatively small dose of local anesthetic to cover large area; rapid onset
–technical complexity, neuropathy
Plexus Blockade
•Injection of local anesthetic adjacent to a plexus, e.g cervical, brachial or lumbar plexus
•Uses :
– surgical anesthesia or post-operative analgesia in the distribution of the plexus
–large area of anesthesia with relatively large dose of agent
–technically  complex, potential for toxicity and neuropathy.
Central neuraxial blockade – “Spinal”
•Injection of local anesthetic into CSF
–profound anesthesia of lower abdomen and extremities
–technically  easy  (LP technique), high success rate, rapid onset
–“high spinal”, hypotension due to sympathetic block, post dural puncture headache.
Central Neuraxial Blockade – “epidural”
•Injection of local anesthetic in to the epidural space at any level of the spinal column
–Anesthesia/analgesia of the thorax, abdomen, lower extremities
–Controlled onset of blockade, long duration when catheter is placed, post-operative analgesia.
–Technically complex, toxicity, “spinal headache”

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Category: Medical

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