Rhinitis: what is Rhinitis, symptoms, types and treatment
Rhinitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose.
Characteristic nasal symptoms include:
- Postnasal discharge,
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Non-allergic perennial rhinitis
- Idiopathic/non-allergic, non-infectious, perennial rhinitis (NANIPER)
- Non-allergic occupational rhinitis
- Hormonal rhinitis
- Drug Induced
- Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES)
Allergic rhinitis is a collection of symptoms that occur if you are exposed to substances you are sensitive to. This reaction by your body is known as an ‘allergy’. Allergies can be seasonal, occurring especially in the spring and fall if you are allergic to pollen from trees and grass, for instance. Allergies can also be year-around if, for example ……
Non-allergic perennial rhinitis:
This form of rhinitis does not depend on the presence of IgE and is not due to an allergic reaction. The symptoms can be triggered by cigarette smoke and other pollutants as well as strong odors, alcoholic beverages, and cold. Other causes may include blockages in the nose, a deviated septum, infections, and over-use of medications such as decongestants. The term non-allergic rhinitis is commonly applied to a diagnosis of any nasal condition in which symptoms are identical to those seen in allergic rhinitis, but an allergic aetiology has been excluded.
Diagnostic criteria include:
- Rhinitis symptoms in the absence of any identifiable allergy
- No structural abnormality
- No immune deficiency
- No sinus disease
Idiopathic/non-allergic, non-infectious, perennial rhinitis (NANIPER): Vasomotor Rhinitis
Vasomotor rhinitis is believed to result from disturbed regulation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems in which the parasympathetic system dominates, resulting in vasodilation and edema of the nasal vasculature.
Non-allergic occupational rhinitis: Patients with occupational rhinitis have symptoms of rhinitis only in the workplace. These symptoms are usually due to an inhaled irritant …
Hormonal rhinitis: Hormonal rhinitis can occur during pregnancy, puberty, hypothyroidism, and acromegaly
Patients may have symptoms of rhinitis during periods of known hormonal imbalance. Estrogens are known to affect the autonomic nervous system by means of several mechanisms.
The most common hormonal causes of rhinitis are pregnancy, menstruation, puberty, use of exogenous estrogen, and known as occult hypothyroidism.
Hormonal rhinitis in pregnancy usually manifests during the second month; it continues throughout pregnancy and ceases after delivery. In patients with hypothyroidism, edema increases in the turbinates as a result of thyrotropic hormone release. Nasal congestion and rhinorrhea are the chief manifesting symptoms of hormonal rhinitis.
Therapy is guided at symptomatic care and treatment of the underlying disease.
Drug Induced: Several medications are implicated in rhinitis, including
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors,
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
- Exogenous estrogens,
- Oral contraceptives.
Etiology: it represents a different etiology. This is a drug-induced rhinitis resulting from prolonged use (ie, >5-10 d) of nasal sympathomimetics. During this process, in the nose are gradually desensitized to endogenous and exogenous stimulation.
Non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES): NARES, or eosinophilic rhinitis (ie, perennial intrinsic rhinitis) accounts for as many as 20% of rhinitis diagnosis. Some researchers believe that this condition may be a precursor to the aspirin triad of intrinsic asthma, nasal polyposis, and aspirin intolerance. Abnormal prostaglandin metabolism has been implicated …