SEMISOLID/LIQUID DOSAGE FORM (INTERNAL USE)
Aqua are aqueous solution of volatile substance used as solvent in certain pharmaceutical preparation to mask the disagreeable taste of drug e.g. peppermint water.
Cachets are providing a means of administering nauseous or disagreeable powder in a tasteless form.
Elixir are liquid, oral preparation of potent or nauseous medicaments, which are pleasantly flavoured and coloured with suitable agents.
Emulsions are suspensions of fats or oils in water with the inclusion of an suitable emulsifying agent (e.g. gum acacia, gum tragacanth) e.g. Castor oil emulsion, Cod liver oil emulsion for internal use. One such emulsion is also used externally e.g. benzyl benzoate emulsion.
Gels are the aqueous colloidal suspension of insoluble medicaments (e.g. aluminium hydroxide as antacid in Digene gel).
Linctus are viscous, liquid oral preparation containing high proportions of syrup (sugar) and glycerin (for viscosity and its sweet nature) which produce a demulcent affect on the mucous membrane of the throat.
Mixture are liquid oral preparation, where the medicaments are in solution or suspension form. Mixture are generally not formulated for a long life and prepared freshly.
Paediatric drops are liquid oral preparation of small dose giving by a calibrated dropper intended for paediatric use.
Solution are aqueous solution containing one or more drugs. They are divided into different categories:
• Solution in dosage form for oral use/ external use e.g. strong iodine solution, hydrogen peroxide solution.
• Parenteral solution are sterile liquid or suspensions packaged in sterile containers, intended for parenteral administration.
There are other type of solutions that are used for peritoneal dialysis, anticoagulant solution, bladder irrigation and certain dermatological solution intended for application to broken surface.
Syrups are the liquid oral preparation made in concentrated sugar solution, mainly for paediatric use and for drugs which are unpleasant in taste.
Tinctures are the concentrated alcoholic preparation of vegetable drugs made by maceration process. (e.g. Tr. opium, Tr. lemon) used in different pharmaceutical preparation for oral use. Tr. Benzoin Co. is used externally.