May 25, 2012 | By | Reply More


Capsules: These are small gelatin contains shells. Capsules are of two types – hard & soft capsules.
Hard capsules are used for powdered drugs e.g. capsules ampicillin, tetracycline. In hard capsules, certain sustained released substance, which gradually release the drug in the respiratory tract (e.g. cap. theophylline).
Soft capsules are used for oils and solution of active drugs e.g. cap. vitamins A, A & D, E, garlic pearls, seven seas etc. Soft capsules are also used for semisolid (ointment) e.g. eye applicaps of chloromycetin.
Granules: These are mixture of active medicament, sugar and some flavouring agent and then moistened to produce a coherent mass which is then passedthrough a sieve to form a granule. Granules are the unusual means of adminis tering drug that possess an unpleasant taste e.g. PAS (para-amino salicylic acid) granules.
Effervescent granules: It is a mixture of citric and tartaric acids with sodium bicarbonate and usually some sweetening agents (saccharin or glucose) may be added.
The powder granules should be dissolved with a prescribed amount of water and taken when it produce effervescence e.g. ENO powder used for indigestion, flatulence and heartburn etc.
Powder: Powder are medicaments in dried form. The powders are of different types:
• Simple or compound powder: The simple powder contain just one active ingredient (e.g. acetylsalicylic acid powder) and compound powder contain more than one active ingredient.
• Powders enclosed in cachets (e.g. ALCOPAR, ORS powder) and in capsules (e.g. ampicillin powder).
• Effervescent powder.
• Powder for external use e.g. NEBASULF, boric acid powder, zinc oxide powder, talc etc. Tooth powder may also be classified under this group.
• Powder with metal (e.g. mercury with chalk) used as purgative.
• Powder use after reconstitution e.g. syr. ampicillin for paediatric use.
Tablets: These are the most extensively used solid dosage form containing granulated or powdered drugs that are compressed or moulded into different shapes. These are different types of tablets according to their size, shape and uses:
• Simple tablets:
– Are disintegrated readily e.g. tab aspirin.

• Soluble tablets:
– Are dissolved in water to form solution for internal and external use (gargles) e.g. tab Disprin.
– Also used for parenteral administration called hypodermic tablets e.g. atropine sulphate tablets.
• Scored tablets:
– They may be easily divided if smaller doses are required (e.g. tab. Analgin).
• Lozenges:
– Are solid preparation consisting mainly of sugar and gum and ensures slow release of medicaments and generally used for local action e.g. cough remedies – Strepcils, Vocacil.
• Pastilles:
– Are solid medicated preparation intended to dissolve slowly in the mouth and softer than lozenges.
• Chewable tablets:
– Are chewed in the mouth for systemic action e.g. tab. Digene, vitamin C (Suckcee), mebendazole (for paediatric use) etc.
• Buccal or sublingual tablets:
– Are chewed and placed under the tongue. When it dissolved and exert their action e.g. tab. nitroglycerine.
• Implants:
– Are tablets use for sustained action and implanted under the skin e.g. Deoxycortone acetone (for contraception).
• Depot tablets:
– Are compressed tablets used for sustained systemic action e.g. tab. Asmapax Depot for asthmatic patients.

 Enteric-coated tablets:
– Are coated with keratin, cellulose acetate phthalate, which do not dissolve in the stomach and only dissolve in alkaline juice of the intestine where the drug is liberated e.g. tab. erythromycin.


Category: Pharmacology

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