Syphilis : Clinical features
- Syphilis may be acquired (common) or congenital (rare).
- Acquired syphilis is classified as
- The characteristic lesion in the primary stage is the chancre that appears at the site of inoculation, usually three weeks after the infection.
- Oralchancre appears in about 5–10% of cases, and clinically presents as a painless ulcer with a smooth surface, raised borders, and an indurated base .
- Regional lymphadenopathy is a constant finding.
- The secondary stage begins 6–8 weeks after the appearance of the chancre, and lasts for 2–10 weeks.
- Oral lesions are mucous patches (common), macular syphilids, and condylomata lata (rare) .
- Constitutional symptoms and signs
– low-grade fever,
- cutaneous manifestations
– macular syphilids,
– papular syphilids,
– condylomata lata,
– nail involvement,
– atypical rash, etc. are constant findings.
- Tertiary syphilis begins after a period of 4–7 years. Oral lesions are gumma, atrophic or luteic glossitis, and interstitial glossitis.
- The most common oral lesions in congenital syphilis are a
– high-arched palate,
– short mandible,
– Hutchinson’s teeth, and
-Moon’s or mulberry molars