1. The enzymes of the mitochondria cause oxidation of the nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), thereby forming carbon dioxide & water and liberate energy. The liberated energy is used to synthesize a high energy substance called a triphosphate (ATP).
ATP is then transported out of the mitochondrion and it diffuses throughout the cell to release its energy wherever it is needed for performing cellular function.
2. Mitochondria contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that controls replication of the cell.
N.B. Sperm contributes no mitochondria to the zygote; therefore, mitochondria come from the ovum and inheritance is strictly maternal.
Q. Enumerate the functions of the mitochondria