Urinary System : Kidneys, Urinary Bladder PPT

June 17, 2012 | By | Reply More

Urinary System : Kidneys, Urinary Bladder PPT
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Identify and describe the components of the urinary system and their function

Describe the (histological) organization of the nephron

Identify the blood vessels that supply blood to the nephrons

Describe the blood flow through and around the nephron

 Functions of Urinary System (Kidneys):

  • Regulate fluid balance (fluid volume) of the body
  • Excrete organic waste products and conserve nutrients, etc
  • Stabilize  pH
  • Regulate ion concentrations in the blood

Kidney Location

Lateral to vertebral column high on body wall,  under floating ribs in retro-peritoneal position

Surface Anatomy

Size of bar of soap

Bean shaped

Hilus – indentation

Three layers

Renal fascia – fibrous tunic
Adipose capsule – protects  kidney
Renal capsule – anchors kidney to body wall, continuous with peritoneum
Sectional Anatomy

Cortex: outer layer, light reddish brow, granular appearance (due to many capillaries)

Medulla: darker striped appearance (due to tubules) Subdivided into   distinct renal pyramids, terminating with a papilla. Separated by renal columns from the cortex.

Urine collection

Ducts within each renal papilla release urine into minor calyx

major calyx

renal pelvis


Renal Circulation 

Renal Artery

Segmental arteries

Interlobar arteries

Arcuate arteries

Interlobular arteries

Afferent arterioles


Efferent arterioles

Peritubular capillaries

Renal Vein

Segmental veins

Interlobar veins

Arcuate veins

Interlobular veins


Functional unit: Nephron


lRenal corpuscle:
»Bowman’s capsule
lTubular passageways with associated blood vessels:
Filtration: Passage across Three Barriers

Capillary endothelium


What gets through?

Basement membrane

Glomerular epithelium (= visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule)

slit pores between pedicels of podocyte


Two Types of Nephrons

Cortical nephrons (85%) shorter, mostly in cortex of kidney, produce “standard” urine
Juxtamedullary nephrons (15%), “juxta-next-to” the medulla – responsive to ADH, can concentrate urine
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Macula densa


Juxtaglomerular cells (smooth muscle fibers from afferent arteriole)

= Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

= Endocrine system structure (renin and EPO)

Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination

Trace drop of urine from kidneys to outside world
Lining of these parts?
Nephroptosis (= floating kidneys)

Occurs when urine becomes too concentrated and substances crystalize. Symptoms arise when stones begin to move down ureter causing intense pain.

Anatomy of Urinary Bladder

Retroperitoneal, behind pubis
Internal folds – rugae – permit expansion (max. holding capacity  ~ 1L)
Trigone  – area at base delineated by openings of ureters and urethra – without muscle
Internal urethral sphincter – involuntary sphincter


1. transitional epithelium

2. detrusor muscle – smooth muscle



External urethral   sphincters – voluntary at pelvic floor

Female – short – from base of bladder to vestibule


1. prostatic urethra – from base of bladder through prostate gland

2. membranous urethra – between prostate gland & base of penis

3. penile (spongy) urethra – traverses penis to orifice

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Category: Medical

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